is a European registered toxicologist. In 2021, he retired from a position as senior scientist at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands (RIVM). At the RIVM, he served in a series of scientific and managerial positions. He studied biochemistry at the University of Utrecht and agricultural chemistry at the University of Wageningen and obtained a PhD in risk assessment from the University of Utrecht. His main interests are the science-policy interface, regulatory risk assessment, alternatives for animal testing and the development of risk assessment tools. He has been involved in many advisory bodies and expert groups developing guidance and tools for risk assessment, e.g., for IPCS/WHO, EU, OECD, EEA. He is a member of the EU Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER), which he chaired from 2016 to 2022.